Microwave Circuits and Metamaterials

Project 1


Overview

First, form project groups for the semester. 

The objective of the tutorial is to become familiar with the basics of Agilent ADS software and Cadence software, and pulse reflections.

NOTE: Use the Project Report Template and keep answers to questions on consecutive sheets of paper with all plots at the end.
To save considerable time and effort, look at the template before doing any work, and copy/paste data into your template as you complete the projects.

IN NO CASE may code or files be exchanged between students, and each student must answer the questions themselves and do their own plots, NO COPYING of any sort! Nevertheless, students are encouraged to collaborate in the lab session.

Only turn in requested plots (Pxx ) and requested answers to questions (Qxx ).


Part 1

Start the software:

  • From a Linux terminal, ADS should be available in the  menu (Mosaic->Engineering->Electrical->Agilent->ADS)
  • From a PC terminal, you must first open a remote Linux session, (Start->AllPrograms->Mosaic->LinuxConnect->ToAnyServer), then proceed as for a Linux terminal
  • For snapshots use the Linux menu Graphic::Ksnapshot and select the option to take a legible snapshot of a window rather than a full screen snapshot.
  • On occasion, HPADS may have an illegible pop-up pane when you first run ADS.  The safe way to handle this is to proceed to a Linux workstation, login, run ADS, and read the message.  On PC's the font problem is often caused by a missing font, and a risky fix is to click the lower left button.  In older software versions, this usually results in choosing the default initialization of RF/digital setup.
  • Note: (this note may not be valid after 2009)  If you find that you have printing problem, see if you have a file ".XprinterDefaults" in your home directory. Move this file to ".XprinterDefaultsOld", and restart ADS ... it will write a new copy of this file that should enable printing.
    if this does not work, move your current ".XprinterDefaults" file to ".XprinterDefaultsOld", and try downloading .XprinterDefaults to your home directory. (To download you may need to hold down the "shift key" while you click on the link.) Select the LPDEST printer by File-->PrintSetup-->Options and select Default Printer ($LPDEST) on default_queue
  • After ADS starts you should get a starting window similar to this:


  • Click the help menu item in the upper right (MenuBar::Help) and read through the on-line manuals (see the help tab in ADS), for particular questions it is usually best to use the help index from the ADS window MenuBar::Help to search the manuals.
  • Note: there seems to be a bug with the main help items, in that you may need to have a web browser such as fireffox open before help will appear in the browser window .
  • Load and run the pulse example as follows:
  • Download the following zip-file (you may need to hold down the shift key while you click on the link):
    RFcourse2012_pulse1a_wrk.zip
  • On occasion, some projects do not seem to function properly when downloaded as a zip-file, an may need to be downloaded must be downloaded as a 7zap archive as follows:
    • Download the 7zap archive RFcourse2012_pulse1a_wrk.7zap to your ~/apps/ads directory
    • Use MenuBar::File::Unarchive to extract the project into your ADS directory as follows
    x
  • Move the zip-file into the apps/ads directory, and extract it
  • You should find a new directory RFcourse2012_pulse1a_wrk created in apps/ads

  • Run ADS and open the new RFcourse2012_pulse1a_wrk workbook by double-clicking it

  • Go down through the directory tree to pulse1/schematic and double click that design file. Double-click the schematic in the right half of the window, and the following schematic should appear.  (1 mil = 1/1000 inch)

  • Save a snapshot of the schematic and paste it into your report.  ( P1 )

  • Double-click the transmission line and look at the variables in the pop-up menu.  Select the variables and observe the changing description at the bottom of the pop-up.

  • Double-click the "gear" icon (shown below) in the upper right of the window to simulate.

    z

  • The data plotting window should appear.
  • Click the "rectangular plot" icon (shown below) in the left of the window to simulate.

    z

  • Drop the plotting box in the visible area, and in the pop-up window:

    Select DataSet -> V1 -> Add
    Select DataSet -> V2 -> Add
    Select DataSet -> Vsrc -> Add

  • Drop a second plotting box in the visible area, and in the pop-up window:

    Select DataSet -> V1 -> Add
    The screen should appear as:

  • Click OK, and the following Time-domain plot should appear.

  • Save a snapshot of the time-domain plot as illustrated below and turn it in.  (snap a region only, so the plot is legible -- dont print the window pane). You may wish to use MenuBar::Marker::New to add markers to measure voltages. ( P2 )

  • Compute the impedance of the line using the formula in wiki. ( Q1 )
  • Use linecalc tool to compute the impedance and electrical length of the line at 1GHz as illustrated below.  Note that the MSUP element in the schematic specifies the thickness and dielectric constant of the substrate.
  • Copy the linecalc window and paste it into your report template. Make sure that it is legible in your report! YOU MUST ADD CAPTIONS AND FIGURE NUMBERS TO ALL FIGURES!!  ( P3 )
  • For snapshots use the Linux menu Graphice::Ksnapshot and select the option to take a legible snapshot of a window rather than full screen
  • Compute Gamma 1 from the component values on the schematic (reflection coefficient at 1st reflection, at interface between source and transmission line) ( Q2 )

    Does the simulated voltage agree with your computed reflection coefficient?

  • Compute Gamma 2 from the component values on the schematic (reflection coefficient at the reflection at far end of line, at the load) ( Q3 )

  • Compute Gamma 3 from the component values on the schematic (reflection coefficient at input, after "round-trip" return) ( Q4 )

  • Change the source impedance R1 to 50 ohms, and resimulate the circuit.

  • Save a snapshot of the time-domain plot as illustrated for P2 and turn it in.  (snap a region only, so the plot is legible -- dont print the window pane). ( P4 )

  • Compute Gamma 1 from the component values on the schematic (reflection coefficient at 1st reflection, at interface between source and transmission line) ( Q5 )

    Does the simulated voltage agree with your computed reflection coefficient?

  • Compute Gamma 2 from the component values on the schematic (reflection coefficient at the reflection at far end of line, at the load) ( Q6)

  • Compute Gamma 3 from the component values on the schematic (reflection coefficient at input, after "round-trip" return) ( Q7 )

  • Exit the program, File->Exit.

  • Part 2

  • Install Cadence software
  • Note for previous users of Cadence:
  • DO NOT RUN ANY CADENCE SOFTWARE UNTIL YOU SAVE ALL OLD FILES
  • Please note that any old files may be overwritten by the new installation in Aug 15 2012.
  • If you were a previous user of Cadence software, you are strongly urged to first move your cadence directory to something such as "cadence_old" and move your cadence6 directory to something such as "cadence6_old" to prevent any destruction of old data
  • Saving to an external usb drive is probably also a good idea
  • From a Linux terminal, Cadence6/Virtuoso6 should be available in the  menu (Mosaic->Engineering->Electrical->Cdence->Cadence6)
  • From a PC terminal, you must first open a remote Linux session, (Start->AllPrograms->Mosaic->LinuxConnect->ToAnyServer), then proceed as for a Linux terminal
  • As soon as you run Cadence software for the first time, it will automatically install all NCSU ami06 libraries in your cadence6 directory.  The ami06 libraries are used to fabricate in the ON Semiconductor 0.5 micron process through MOSIS.com
  • Note: installation may take a few minutes after you accept the pop-up prompt to have this installed... so wait until the following windows appear on your screen.
  • z

    If all goes well, you should see something like:
    z


  • Create a new library using  MenuBar::File::New::Library from library manager menu bar and use the input parameters as shown below to create a 0.5 micron design:

  • z


  • Next create a new cell in cadence using the MenuBar::File::New::CellView from library manager menu bar and use the input parameters as shown below to create a 0.5 micron design. 
  • NOTE: a common bug in Cadence is that the new popup window is hidden behind your other windows

  • z


  • Set all layers to be visible using MenuBar::Options::Display and set display levels to Start=0 Stop=32 in the display options pop-up menu,
  • and also click the PinNames and Instance options as below.
  • z


  • Select the poly material in the left side of the screen (see below) and use the MenuBar::Create::Shape::Path command to draw your initials in poly.

  • z


  • Next create a PMOS transistor with the command MenuBar::Create::Instance and select the following parameters

  • z




    z


  • Select the transistor and edit the transistor property for a 1-finger gate and with multiplier=4 to observe a transistor with multiple source/drain contacts appropriate for an intergdigitated device layout equivalent to 4 devices in parallel
  • Save a snapshot of your first RFIC Chip Layout with your initials and a multiplier=4 PMOS transistor ( P5 )
  • Finally, run a DRC (Design Rules Check) using MenuBar::Verify::DRC as below:
  • z



  •  
  • Observe the error summary that appears in the ICFB text window area that opened when you first started Cadence:

  • z


  • Dont worry about any errors, just print whatever errors you have as shown above ( P6 )
  • More tutorials are at a variety of other websites.see also
  • http://www.eda.ncsu.edu/wiki/NCSU_EDA_Wiki
  • http://www.seas.upenn.edu/%7Eeecad/cadence/cadence.html
  • http://www.cadence.com/support/university/Pages/default.aspx
  • http://www.cs.utah.edu/cadence/
  • http://www.cadence.com/support/university/ww_usp.aspx
  • http://www.ece.umd.edu/~dilli/research/layout/cadencetutorial/cadencedemo9.html
  • http://coefs.uncc.edu/tpweldon/cadenceproductsatunccharlotte/

  • Part 3

  • Look at the on-line manuals (see the help tab in ADS), then answer the following questions and turn them in. It is usually best to use help index accessible from an ADS window to search the manuals. 
  • What is Victor Veselago best known for? (Q8 )
  • In 1971, what did Federico Faggin design for Intel? (Q9 )
  • Most microwave oven operate at a frequency of 2.45 GHz.  What is the clock frequency of the 11-stage ring oscillator in the MOSIS IBM 32SOI test data?  (Q10 )


  • Report

    NOTE ReportTemplate: Use the Project Report Template and keep answers to questions on consecutive sheets of paper with all plots at the end.

    Do not add extraneous pages or put explanations on separate pages unless specifically directed to do so. The instructor will not read extraneous pages!

    Only turn in requested plots (Pxx ) and requested answers to questions (Qxx ). All plots must be labeled P1, P2, etc. and all questions must be numbered Q1, Q2, etc.  YOU MUST ADD CAPTIONS AND FIGURE NUMBERS TO ALL FIGURES!! 


    Copyright 2010-2015 T. Weldon

    Cadence, Spectre and Virtuoso are registered trademarks of Cadence Design Systems, Inc., 2655 Seely Avenue, San Jose, CA 95134. Agilent and ADS are registered trademarks of Agilent Technologies, Inc.